German dual training system

Dual Education System

NCVER; VOCED, TESDA.... / Dual Accreditation / Dual Enrolment / Dual Vocational Training / Dualized training programme / Dual training system / dual sector institutions / Dual recognition


Dual Education System is called "dual" because it combines apprenticeships in a company and vocational education at a vocational school in one course. In the company, the apprentice receives practical training which is supplemented by theoretical instruction in the vocational school.

Dual Education System in Germany

Vocational training in the dual system in Germany is based on the occupational concept: occupations requiring formal training should be oriented to the groups of qualifications that are typical for the relevant work processes. Specialisation is permitted, as a complement to the basic qualifications required for each occupation in question, but it must be taught within an occupation context. Vocational training should prepare people for specific occupations, to be pursued immediately after the completion of training, but it should also prepare people for further learning. Vocational training must build «bridges to further training». For this reason, two of its important components include promoting willingness to learn and fostering personality development. To work in the knowledge society, people must be able to plan, carry out and check their work independently. Vocational training within the dual system should be oriented to this aim. Additional qualifications, in addition to regular training, can support this aim and lead to further training.[1]

Around 60 percent of all young people learn a profession within the dual system of vocational education and training in Germany.

There are around 350 state recognized training occupations. The period of training is usually two to three years and is concluded by a state examination. During this time, the apprentice is financially remunerated. Access to this training is not formally linked to a specific school certificate.

However, most employers expect secondary school graduation at least. The level of the degree depends on the requirements of the specific occupation. The system is based on statutory training regulations and administered by the Chambers of Industry and Commerce (IHK).


  1. ^ Germany’s Vocational Education at a Glance